Frequently Asked Questions

(click on topic headings to see all questions and answers on a single scrollable page)


Seismic Theory

What is a seismic wave?

What are the different types of seismic waves?

How fast do seismic waves travel and what controls this?

What is a [seismic] wave front?

What is a [seismic] ray?

What is Huygen's Principle?

What is Snell’s Law?

Seismic Refraction

What is [seismic] refraction?

What is seismic refraction used for?

How deep can I explore with seismic refraction?

What kind of waves does seismic refraction use?

What is the 'crossover distance?'

What is 'apparent velocity'?

What is a 'velocity inversion'?

What is 'reciprocity'?

What is an 'air wave'?

What are the key components of a seismic refraction system?

How many people are required for a refraction survey?

What geophones should I use in a refraction survey?

Is it necessary to bury the geophones?

Can I do refraction on pavement?

Can I do refraction on a hillside?

Can I survey in the rain?

Seismic Reflection

What is the Reflection Coefficient?

Is 'Mini-Sosie' surveying supported? When should I do it?

What is the best seismograph for seismic reflection?

What source should I use?

Which geophones should I use?

Do I need a roll switch?

How many channels do I need?

What is the procedure for doing a CDP survey?

Downhole Seismic - coming soon

Mult-channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) - coming soon



What is the depth of investigation?

What are its limitations?

What are its advantages over traditional galvanic resistivity meters?

How long will it take to cover XXX km, miles, square meters, feet, etc.?

Does it use GPS, and if so what kind?

Where can it be used? For example, how well does it work on ice, in water, on paved surfaces, over permafrost, inside a building, under power lines, on rocky surfaces? Where should it not be used?

Can it detect tunnels and caves, and if so how deep?

How much does it cost?

What are the purposes and advantages/disadvantages of using multiple receivers instead of a single receiver?

Can it be used to detect utilities?

Where can it not be used?

How difficult is it to use the instrument and run the software, and do I need training to learn how to use it?

What sort of vertical and horizontal resolution can I get, i.e. what size and type of targets can I resolve?

How difficult is it to manually tow the OhmMapper, and can it be towed with an ATV or other vehicle?

StrataGem EH-4

What depth of investigation can be achieved with the Stratagem?

How long does it take to set up and do a sounding? In other words, how many soundings can I do in a day?

How much does it cost?

Do I need training?

What software is available to process and interpret the data? How much does it cost?

Can I use my own MT processing and interpretation software with Stratagem data?

What vertical and horizontal resolution can I get?

Can I detect the presence of water?

Can I detect and identify the presence of specific minerals?

How many people does it take to run a survey?

If it is an AMT system what is the transmitter for and can I run it without a transmitter?

How does the Stratagem compare to TDEM?

What is the low-frequency option for and how much does it cost?

Do you have a list of consultants who can do the survey and interpret the data for me?

MetalMapper 2×2

What does the MetalMapper 2×2 do?

What types of UXO can be discriminated?

What is the depth of investigation?

What does a typical MetalMapper 2×2 survey involve?

How fast can the MetalMapper 2×2 survey?

Can the MetalMapper 2×2 be used as a general purpose metal detector?

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